The Food


51 species in 8 families.

Life cycle – eggs – larva either 1 year, 2 years for mayflies or with some olives which may have 4/5 generations a year.  With up to 50 moults a year.

No pupal stage.

Dun – which is a winged sub adult (wings are not as translucent).

Spinner – final adult stage. Adults have no mouth parts.


199 species, 19 families. – wings are tent like and have hairs.

Life cycle – eggs – larva – pupa – adult.

1 – 2 generations a year.

4 – 5 larval stages, during which time the larvae will spin silk for shelters (caseless caddis) or cases.

60% of species are found in ponds & lakes.  These are the cased caddis larva as the case is needed to pump water over the body. Caseless caddis are found in rivers where the water can flow over them.


34 species, 7 families – wings lay flat on the back or wrapped around as in needle flies.

Most species are found in stony streams.

Life cycle – eggs – larvae – adults, which climb out on stones.

10 – 35 larval moults. Larvae can take up to 5 years to develop.

No mating swarms, but they drum their abdomens prior to mating.


Primarily concerned with the midges, although small they form a major food source for many trout worldwide.

Egg (2 days) – larva (2 weeks) – pupal (3 days) – adult (2 days)

Other classes of insect that are relevant to fly fishing for trout

Crustacea Shrimps, Water-louse, etc.

Megaloptera Alder flies.

Hemiptera Water-bugs, corixids, etc.

Coleoptera Beetles.

Arachnidae Spiders.

Lepidoptera Moths, etc.

Neuroptera Lace wings, etc.

Orthoptera Grasshoppers.

Hymenoptera Wasps, ants, etc.

Odonata Dragon flies and damselflies.